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讀紐時學英文
2018/02/09 第203期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 

紐時周報精選 Male Nurses Explain Why Nursing Is a Job of the Future for Men男護理師 男性未來熱門行業
Salaried or Hourly? The Gaps in Family-Friendly Policies Begin to Close美企安家政策 惠及時薪員工

紐時周報精選
 

Male Nurses Explain Why Nursing Is a Job of the Future for Men男護理師 男性未來熱門行業
文/Claire Cain Miller
譯/李京倫

Jake Creviston, a nurse practitioner, has been repeatedly mistaken for a doctor.

Adam White says the veterans he cares for as a student nurse at the VA hospital feel comfortable around him because “I’m a big burly guy with a beard.”

執業護理師克雷維斯登常被誤認為醫生。

懷特說,他在退伍軍人醫院擔任實習護理師,他照顧的老兵看到他都覺得很自在,因為「我高大魁梧,還有鬍子」。

Glenn Fletcher, after being laid off from a lumber mill during the financial crisis, found a new career in nursing. And with it, “a really good feeling putting your head on the pillow realizing you’ve helped other people.”

The experiences of male nurses offer lessons that could help address a problem of our time: how to prepare workers for the fastest-growing jobs, at a time when more than a quarter of men are not in the labor force.

弗萊徹在金融危機時期被鋸木廠裁員,後來在護理業覓得職涯第二春,而他說,從事這一行,「你會體認到你幫到了人,帶著很棒的心情入睡」。

男護理師的經驗給我們上了一課,或許有助於因應我們這個時代的一個問題:在超過25%男性待業的此際,如何培訓勞工從事這需求成長最快速的工作。

Only 13 percent of nurses in the United States are men, but that share has grown steadily since 1960, when the number was 2 percent, according to a working paper published in October by the Washington Center for Equitable Growth.

“It’s not a flood, but it’s a change,” said Abigail Wozniak, an economist at the University of Notre Dame, who wrote the paper with Elizabeth Munnich, an economist at the University of Louisville. The biggest drivers, they found, were the changing economy and expanding gender roles.

美國僅13%護理師是男性,不過,智庫「華盛頓公平成長中心」去年10月發布的工作報告顯示,1960年這個比率是2%,此後即穩定成長。

美國聖母大學經濟學者沃茲尼亞克說:「這不是像洪水一樣的劇變,但確實有改變。」他與路易斯維爾大學經濟學者伊麗莎白.穆尼克合寫這份報告。他們發現,最大的原因是經濟改變和性別角色擴展。

We talked to a dozen male nurses, with various career paths and specialties, working in the Pacific Northwest, where recruitment efforts have focused on bringing men into nursing. Some were drawn to the caregiving, others to the adrenaline of the work. It’s a reliable, well-paying job at a time when that’s hard to come by, they said, but also one they feel proud of.

Women have been entering male-dominated fields for decades, but it’s less common for a predominantly female occupation to have a substantial increase in its share of men. Yet the jobs that are shrinking tend to be male ones, and those that are growing are mostly female.

我們訪問了12名男護理師,每個人的職業道路和專長各不相同,但都在美國西北部工作,這個區域致力於招募男性從事護理業。有些人因為喜歡護理工作而走上此途,另一些人則是看上這份工作夠刺激。他們說,護理這一行工作穩定薪酬又高 ,現在這種工作可不好找,不過他們同時也以當護理師為榮。

女性進入男性主宰的工作領域已有數十年之久,但在女性主宰的領域,男性占比顯著增加則較不常見。不過,數量萎縮的通常是男性的職缺,成長的則大多是女性的職缺。

Nursing is no paragon of gender equality: Even though men are a minority in the field, they are paid more than women. The stigma against men still runs deep, particularly among older patients and in parts of the country with more traditional gender roles, nurses said. (Several said the movie “Meet the Parents,” in which Ben Stiller played a nurse whose girlfriend’s father wasn’t thrilled about his career, didn’t help.)

But for some men, the notion that caregiving jobs are women’s work is outdated. Progressive attitudes about gender roles, as measured by the General Social Survey, were associated with more men who entered nursing, the new paper found.

護理這一行並不是性別平等的典範:雖然男性在這領域占少數,薪水卻仍高於女性。護理師們說,對於男護理師的汙名化仍然很嚴重,尤其在年紀較大的病患間和在美國部分較執著於傳統性別角色的地區。(其中有些人說,在電影「門當父不對」中,班史提勒飾演男護理師,女友的父親對他的職業不滿意,這部電影也沒幫上忙。)

不過,對一些男性而言,護理工作是女性專利的想法已經過時了。美國最新的「社會概況調查」顯示,對性別角色態度的進步,與更多男性從事護理工作有關。

說文解字看新聞

文/李京倫

本文談的是美國對男護理師的需求成長迅速。在台灣,護士和護理師都是經過國家考試取得證照的專業人士,差別只在學歷,護士(licensed practical nurse)是高職畢業,護理師(registered nurse)為大專畢業。

立法院1月通過勞動基準法(the Labor Standards Act)修正案,規定在特殊情況下,輪班間隔(rest time between shifts)可從至少11小時縮短為8小時,引發護理基層反彈,十多個護理師產業工會到衛福部抗議,要衛福部別當「血汗幫凶」(an accomplice of blood-and-sweat working conditions)。衛福部則表示,護理人員仍以維持11小時輪班間隔為主,只有在發生重大災害、突發事故及嚴重疫情時,才可透過勞資協商(labor-management negotiations)將輪班間隔縮短為8小時。

美國護理師的「薪情」有多好?

根據凱澤健康新聞網2016年的報導,美國護理師平均年薪為7萬1000美元(約台幣207萬元),加州最高,平均10萬美元(約台幣291萬元),生活費高昂、對護理師需求大和工會強而有力是主因。1999年,加州立法規定醫院的護病比(nurse-to-patient ratio),也就是平均每個護理人員照顧病人的數量,就算車禍或嚴重疫情導致病患暴增,醫院仍須遵守法定的護病比,大大推升了對護理師的需求。

 

Salaried or Hourly? The Gaps in Family-Friendly Policies Begin to Close美企安家政策 惠及時薪員工
文/Claire Cain Miller
譯/李京倫

As the labor market tightens, employers have been competing for highly educated workers by trying to make it easier for them to do their jobs and also have families — benefits like egg freezing or reduced schedules for new parents.

Now, some employers are beginning to address the same challenge for lower-wage workers, starting with paid family leave.

隨著美國勞動市場緊俏,雇主競相推出福利措施以招攬高學歷員工,讓他們更容易兼顧工作與家庭,例如協助員工冷凍卵子,或減少新手父母的工時。

現在,一些雇主開始幫薪水較低的勞工解決同樣的問題,第一步是提供有薪家事假。

Starbucks last month announced raises and stock grants for all employees in the United States, along with new benefits aimed specifically at workers with family caregiving responsibilities: paid time off to care for sick family members and paid paternity leave for hourly employees.

It followed the announcement by Walmart last month that it was raising pay and adding family-friendly benefits. It gave full-time hourly workers the same paid parental leave as salaried ones and said it would help pay for adoptions, including for hourly workers.

上月,跨國連鎖咖啡店星巴克宣布給美國所有員工加薪並配股,並針對承擔家庭照護責任的勞工推出新的福利:讓員工帶薪休假照護患病的家人,並讓時薪制員工享有帶薪陪產假。

跨國零售企業沃爾瑪則在1月稍早宣布給員工加薪並提高安家福利,讓全職的時薪制員工享有與年薪制員工同樣的帶薪育嬰假,並將替員工支付部分領養小孩的費用,時薪制員工也適用。

It’s a sign that the effects of low unemployment have reached companies that rely on low-wage workers. Both companies also credited tax cuts.

“It brings the talent we’re looking for, and industry-leading retention,” said Reggie Borges, a Starbucks spokesman. The company had been planning to add benefits for a while, he said, but the corporate tax cuts “were an accelerator.”

這個跡象顯示,低失業率的效應已觸及仰賴低薪勞工的公司。這兩家公司都表示,減稅也是它們有餘裕提高員工福利的原因。

星巴克發言人柏爾赫斯說:「家庭福利能引來我們尋覓的高手,並讓我們保持業界領先的地位。」他說,星巴克計畫提高福利已有一段時間,不過企業稅降低「讓此事加速實現」。

By focusing on family-friendly benefits, companies are also catching up to the fact that family life has changed faster than workplace or public policies. In families of all income levels, it’s more common for both parents to work or women to be the breadwinners, and the lack of family-friendly benefits has led to declining labor force participation as people struggle to combine work and parenthood.

Benefits like paid parental leave are a crucial factor for people, especially women, in continuing to work. Yet hourly workers, who generally have the most need for paid parental leave, have also been the least likely to get it. Only recently have more companies begun to change that.

企業在專注改善家庭福利的同時,也順應了一個事實:家庭生活改變的速度比職場或公共政策來得快。不論是哪一種收入階層的家庭,雙親都工作或女性養家的情況都更為常見,而缺乏安家福利已使人們難以兼顧工作和親職,以致勞動參與率下降。

有薪育嬰假這類福利對人們繼續工作十分重要,尤其是女性。不過,通常最需要帶薪育嬰假的是時薪制員工,偏偏他們卻是最不可能得到的一群人。直到最近才有更多公司著手改變這個情況。

The United States is the only industrialized country not to mandate paid parental leave. Employers choose whether and how much to offer, and this varies greatly. Of the 20 largest employers, all but one, Lowe’s, offer some form of paid parental leave. Eight of them give hourly employees less than salaried employees — in time, pay or both — including Starbucks and General Electric, according to a Times analysis.

美國是唯一未強制規定給予有薪育嬰假的工業化國家。給不給育嬰假和給多少假由雇主決定,而雇主之間的差別很大。根據紐約時報分析,美國前20大公司,除家居裝修產品零售商勞氏外,都提供某種形式的有薪育嬰假,其中8家給時薪制員工的育嬰假條件,不如給年薪制員工的,包括星巴克和奇異,或者在天數方面,或者在薪資方面,也可能兩方面皆然。

 

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