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讀紐時學英文
2018/09/07 第231期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 

紐時周報精選 Fighting Dementia With Memories of Childhood and Happy Times 用兒時回憶和快樂時光對抗失智
A Hemingway War Story Sees Print for the First Time 海明威戰爭短篇首次刊出

紐時周報精選
 

Fighting Dementia With Memories of Childhood and Happy Times 用兒時回憶和快樂時光對抗失智
文/Christopher F. Schuetze
譯/莊蕙嘉

“We’re lost,” said Truus Ooms, 81, to her friend Annie Arendsen, 83, as they rode a city bus together.“As the driver, you should really know where we are,” Arendsen told Rudi ten Brink, 63, who sat at the wheel of the bus.

「我們迷路了。」當她們一同搭乘一輛市區巴士時,81歲的楚絲.烏姆斯對她的83歲友人安妮.艾倫德森這麼說。

艾倫德森對坐在巴士駕駛座、63歲的魯迪.滕.布林克說:「身為司機,你真的應該要知道我們身在何處。」

But she was joking.

不過她是在開玩笑。

The three are dementia patients at a care facility in the eastern Netherlands. Their bus ride — a route on the flat, tree-lined country roads of the Dutch countryside — was a simulation that plays out several times a day on three video screens.

這三位是荷蘭東部一間照護中心內的失智症患者,他們的巴士之旅-在荷蘭鄉間有行道樹的平坦道路上行駛的路線-其實是每天會在三個螢幕上播放數次的模擬旅程。

It is part of an unorthodox approach to dementia treatment that doctors and caregivers across the Netherlands have been pioneering: harnessing the power of relaxation, childhood memories, sensory aids, soothing music, family structure and other tools to heal, calm and nurture the residents, rather than relying on the old prescription of bed rest, medication and, in some cases, physical restraints.

這是荷蘭各地醫師和照護人員一直在率先嘗試的失智症非正統療法的一部分。利用放鬆的力量、兒時回憶、感官輔具、柔和音樂、家族結構及其他工具,去治療、安撫和滋育入住者,而非依賴以往的方式:臥床休息、藥物,有時候甚至會用到身體約束。

“The more stress is reduced, the better,” said Dr. Erik Scherder, a neuropsychologist at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and one of the country’s best-known dementia care specialists. “If you can lower stress and discomfort, it has a direct physiological effect.”

「減少愈多壓力,效果愈好。」荷蘭最知名的失智症治療專家之一、阿姆斯特丹自由大學神經心理學家艾瑞克.薛德說。「如果你能降低壓力和不適,就有直接的生理效果。」

Simulated trips in buses or on beaches — like one in a care facility in Haarlem, not far from a real beach — create a gathering point for patients. The shared experience lets them talk about past trips and take a mini holiday from their daily lives.

模擬的巴士或沙灘旅行-像是在哈倫一所照護機構舉辦的一場,距離真正的海灘也不遠-為病患創造了聚會的時機。這個共享的經驗讓他們談起過往的旅行,並且在日常生活中享受一個迷你假期。

Dementia, a group of related syndromes, manifests itself in a steep decline in brain functions. The condition steals memories and personalities. It robs families of their loved ones and saps resources, patience and finances.

失智症是多個相關症候群的統稱,主要顯現在大腦功能的急遽退化,這個病症會偷走記憶及個性,奪走家人深愛的人,並榨取資源、耐心與金錢。

Up to 270,000 Dutch people — roughly 8.4 percent of the 3.2 million residents over the age of 64 — have dementia, and the government expects that number to double in the next 25 years.

多達27萬人-在64歲以上的320萬居民中約占8.4%-罹患失智症,政府認為這個數字在未來25年將會增加一倍。

In recent years, the government has preferred to pay for home care rather than in a licensed facility so most people with dementia live at home. The facilities, which are privately run but publicly funded, are generally reserved for people in an advanced state of the disease.

近年來,政府偏好資助失智症患者的居家照護甚於送往有執照的機構,因此大多數患者住在家裡。這些由公家出資、民間經營的照護機構,通常保留給重度失智的病患。

In the 1990s, the Dutch started thinking differently about how to treat the disease, moving away from a medicalized approach.

在1990年代,荷蘭開始跳脫訴諸醫藥的角度,思考治療這種疾病的其他方法。

“In the ‘80s, clients were treated like patients in a hospital,” said Ilse Achterberg, a former occupational therapist, who was one of the pioneers of “snoezel” rooms, which feature light, aroma, massage and sound therapy, and let patients relax and access emotions that are often blocked in stressful clinical settings.

曾任職能治療師的伊爾絲.艾徹柏格說:「在80年代,個案在醫院被當成病人治療。」她是採行「多感官環境」療法的先驅之一,這種方法在房間中利用燈光、香氣、按摩和聲音治療,讓患者放鬆,釋放在充滿壓力的醫院環境中被封鎖的情緒。

These rooms were the forerunner of some of the techniques found today in many care facilities in the Netherlands.

這些多感官環境室,是現今荷蘭許多照護機構採行的一些技術的先驅。

※說文解字看新聞

本文介紹荷蘭失智症治療的最新方式,dementia的字源是拉丁語,由de-(遠離)和mens(心智)組合而成,指大腦功能的退化疾病。阿茲海默症、血管型失智症、路易氏體失智症都是失智症的一種。

絕大多數的失智症尚未找出治療方法,因此研究人員也在尋找醫療之外的其他改善方式。orthodox有「正統的、東正教的、猶太教正統派的」等意思,加上un-就成了「非正統的」,意指醫療之外的其他方法。

文中形容失智症時使用了擬人手法,steals memories and personalities、robs families of their loved ones以及saps resources,用了偷竊、搶奪及榨取等三個動詞,描繪失智症患者喪失記憶、性格大變等症狀,以及照顧的家人承受的折磨。

最後一段的「snoezel」是荷語字,動詞是snoezelen,由「snuffelen」(sniff,嗅聞)和「doezelen」(doze,小睡)兩字組合而成,在1970年代由兩名荷蘭治療師創造,英文為multisensory environment(多感官環境),利用燈光、芳香、音樂等環境設置,在無壓力的前提下,激發失智症患者的感官能力。多感官環境也用於協助自閉症或腦傷患者,但並非醫療。

 

A Hemingway War Story Sees Print for the First Time 海明威戰爭短篇首次刊出
文/Matthew Haag
譯/王麗娟

By 1956, Ernest Hemingway was in a free fall.

到1956年時,厄尼斯特.海明威已聲名大墜。

Once transformative and captivating, his short, simple staccato style that remade U.S. writing decades before had gone stale. It was now emulated by numerous authors. Lost in a literary rut, he became a caricature of his super-macho characters. He dodged sniper’s bullets in France, chased wild animals in Africa and tried to outrun fame.

海明威簡短、平鋪直述,不連貫的文體,曾經創新且迷人,並在數十年前重塑美國的寫作風格,如今卻已變得陳腐乏味。現今,又有為數眾多的作者模仿他的文體。迷失在文學的窠臼中,海明威變成了他筆下超級男子氣概人物的分身。他在法國躲過了狙擊手的子彈,在非洲追逐野生動物,還試圖逃脫自己的名氣。

That summer, Hemingway found inspiration for his fiction in his adventures years earlier as a correspondent in World War II. He wrote five short stories about the war, he told his publisher, with a stipulation: “You can always publish them after I’m dead.”

那年夏天,海明威從先前二戰期間擔任記者那幾年的冒險經歷中,找到了寫小說的靈感。他寫了五篇關於這場戰爭的短篇小說,他和出版商明文約定:「你可以在我死後隨時發表它們。」

Six decades later and long after his suicide in 1961, only one of those stories had been published — until Thursday. The newly published work, “A Room on the Garden Side,” is a roughly 2,100-word story told in the first person by an American writer named Robert just after Allied soldiers liberated Paris from the Nazis in August 1944.

60年後,也是他1961年自殺許久後,直到星期四(8月2日),這些小說故事只有一篇付梓。新發表的作品《靠花園的房間》,是約2100字的一個短篇故事,由名為羅伯的一位美國作家以第一人稱道出,時間背景為1944年8月盟軍甫自納粹手中收復巴黎之際。

There is little doubt that Robert is based on the author himself. The scene from the title is a garden-view room at the Ritz, the luxury hotel in Paris on the Place Vendôme that Hemingway adored and claimed to have “liberated” in the war. Soldiers in the story call Robert by the writer’s nickname, “Papa.” There are other signs, too: exclusive magnums of Champagne, doting service from the hotelier and discussions about books and writers and the trappings of celebrity.

羅伯就是作者本人幾無疑義。至於標題的場景,是位於巴黎旺多姆廣場、麗池豪華飯店的花園景觀房,海明威非常喜歡這家飯店,聲稱他在戰爭中參與過它的「解放」。故事中的軍 人,以海明威的綽號「老爹」稱呼羅伯。其他跡象包括:獨一無二的大酒瓶香檳,飯店業者的專寵服務,書籍與作家的討論,以及名人的服飾。

“Hemingway’s deep love for his favorite city as it is just emerging from Nazi occupation is on full display, as are the hallmarks of his prose,” said Andrew F. Gulli, the managing editor of The Strand Magazine, the literary quarterly that published the story.

《河濱》雜誌執行編輯安德魯.賈利說:「納粹的占領剛結束,海明威對他最喜愛城市的深情躍然紙上,他的散文也標記著相同的情感。」海明威這個短篇就發表在《河濱》文學季刊上。

While the short story had never been released to the reading public, it was not entirely unknown. The manuscript — 15 pages written in pencil — has been stored for decades in the permanent Hemingway collection at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Boston. Hemingway scholars have studied and written about “A Room on the Garden Side” and the four other works in the series, including “Black Ass at the Crossroads,” the only other story that had been published.

這篇短篇小說雖然從未對讀者公開,卻並非全然不為世人所知。它的手稿,以鉛筆書寫的15頁故事,已在波士頓「約翰.甘迺迪總統圖書館暨博物館」的永久海明威收藏存放了數十年。《靠花園的房間》和此一系列短篇故事的另外4篇,包括出版過的《十字路口的黑驢 》,研究海明威的學者都讀過並發表過評論文章。

About a year ago, Gulli said, he asked the Hemingway estate for permission to print the story in Strand Magazine, which mostly publishes new mystery stories but also unpublished pieces by well-known writers. In November, it published an uncovered short story by Raymond Chandler, best known for his gritty detective tales.

賈利說,大約一年前,他要求海明威遺產管理委員會允許《河濱》刊登這篇故事,該雜誌主要發表新的懸疑故事,但也刊載過知名作家從未發表的作品。去年11月,該雜誌發表了雷蒙.錢德勒所作,新發現的一個短篇故事。錢德勒以寫實描述負面情景的偵探故事聞名。

 

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